Coupling between Low and Upper Atmosphere in Mid and Low-Latitudes

The coupling between lower atmosphere and ionosphere is one of the processes through which energy and momentum is transferred to higher layers of the atmosphere thereby modifying existing background conditions. This is more intensified during extreme space weather events such as geomagnetic storms when a number of electrodynamic and dynamic processes are at play. In such instances it becomes complicated to isolate different physical mechanisms responsible for each observation through out the storm duration. As a result, both modelling and observational studies are important to provide comprehensive understanding of storm-related processes. This project will involve a long-term observational analysis of satellite data over low and mid latitudes. This will assist to establish the trend of coupling between lower atmosphere and ionosphere through Lorentz forcing that is ultimately responsible for launching atmospheric gravity waves and later manifest as poleward travelling ionospheric disturbances during geomagnetic storms. These disturbances could reach mid-latitude regions. This proposed research will therefore lead to establishment of physical mechanisms that that play different roles during the coupling processes and how the energy progresses to mid-latitude regions on both sides of the geomagnetic equator.