Project outline: The Total Electron Content (TEC) in the ionosphere is of great importance in space physics, radio communication and satellite-based navigation. The objectives of the project are: 1. To evaluate and compare algorithms for the near real time nowcasting and forecasting of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) developed by SANSA and INGV. Data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) over the South African region will be used, including data from the Trignet network of GNSS receivers and other GNSS receivers managed by SANSA and the International Global Navigation service (IGS). 2. Produce maps of TEC with updates every 15 minute. 3. Estimate and predict a TEC disturbance estimate for the next hour. 4. Verify the accuracy of the TEC maps and the turbulence estimate by ongoing comparison with the TEC derived from ionosonde measurements in Southern Africa.