Plasma bubbles

Plasma bubble observations from GPS TEC data.

Plasma bubbles are ionospheric plasma density depletions that have adverse effects on transionospheric radio signals. The bubbles are mainly observed during local nighttime at equatorial and low latitudes. However, recent studies have shown that they can also rarely be observed at midlatitudes and during daytime. The generation mechanism of these depletions is the generalized Raleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability through various seeding mechanisms, including electric and magnetic fields disturbances and atmospheric gravity waves. The project will focus on the study of the possible generation mechanisms of plasma bubbles over the African low and middle latitudes. The objectives of the project are to determine: characteristics of midlatitude and daytime plasma bubbles; space weather conditions that influence the generation of midlatitude and daytime plasma bubbles; type of gravity waves that influence generation of plasma bubbles